Although drug addiction is a complex phenomenon, but still there are many theories concerning biological, psychological and social aspects. There is no single case or explanation to this phenomenon. In terms of drug addiction in Islamic perspective the related explanations can help those professionals who are practicing under the tenets of Islam to understand the religious dynamics of drug addiction such as what Islam describes about drug use and reasons to get addicted over substances.
So for the purpose three models are going to be explored in this article in terms of drug addiction in Islamic perspective. It is important to keep in mind the drug use is referred here as recreational use only. There are two conditions for drug use are predisposition to be dependent on drugs and the second is availability of drugs. Thus the disease model is a sort of explanation which determines drug addiction as a pure biological disease and the victimization of user as no will over this predisposition. Similarly moral model explains drug addiction in terms of persons own will to become addicts. These explanations are based upon Cartesian’s dualism.
As per our focus, in Islam alcohol and all other intoxicants (khamr) are prohibited. In Qur’an alcohol is described as deed of Satan (Al-Maida 5:90). Before the final prohibition of alcohol, muslims of Arabs used to drink wine in their celebrations. They felt the cognitive disturbance along with social issues in the wine users so they asked prophet Muhammadﷺto guide them according to the Quranic teachings. So Allah says in quran that they asked you about intoxicants and gambling say, there is great sin in both, and some benefits for people, the sin is greater than the benefits ( Al-Baqara, 2:219). In Islam the prohibition of alcohol was therapeutic in its own nature which was gradual and in three phases proceeded to final prohibition in fifth hijri. Hence Abdel Haleem explains about the term khamr as a composite term and it includes all forms of alcohol present at the time of Muhammadﷺ.
In islamic theology, a muslim is not only responsible for his own self but he is also responsible for the community so his identity is also dependent at this. So the society is essential for individual and individual is also important for society to exist. Muhammadﷺsaid that people are dependent on Allah and Allah loves those who care for others. In Islamic tradition there is a great value to shame (haya) and guilt. Shame in islam refers as being shameful in front of Allah because as muslims we know Allah knows everything. So shame and humility develop a sense of being remembrance of Allah. Similarly, the guilt over the sins enables muslims to repent to Allah and this act of repentance with true remorse is known as tawba (to return). It’s a way to reform and rectify what one’s has done wrong. So these to Islamic gifts are core in the treatment of addictive disease. In the treatment of drug addiction there are three models one is Jurm and other is mardruhani addiction as a spiritual disease. These two models discussed for drug addiction in Islamic perspective are based on shame and guilt which necessitate inner motivation to give up drugs.
The author is associated to a top rehab center in Islamabad.