Cross Sectional Study of Subsyndromal Depression and Depression
Subsyndromal depression includes those patients having more than two symptoms of depression that does not satisfy major depression diagnostic criteria. Hence in Judd, Rapaport, Paulus, et al. (as cited by Kennedy, Abbott, and Paykel, 2004) reported that in subsyndromal symptomatic depression, two or more than two symptoms of depression same as in major depression should be present but excluding the symptoms of depressed mood or anhedonia. Furthermore Pincus, Davis, and McQueen (as cited by Nation, Katzen, Papapetropoulos, Scanlon, and Levin, 2009) also investigated that the depressive symptoms that do not meet the criteria for major depression, minor depression, dysthymia with respect to duration, frequency, intensity or according to the type of symptoms present is classified as subthreshold depression(Nation, Katzen, Papapetropoulos, Scanlon, & Levin, 2009). The present study aimed to investigate the impact of age, gender, education, marital status, socio-economic status, occupational status and family system on subsyndromal depression and depression. Using convenience sampling technique data was collected from 240 participants.
The way Subsyndromal Depression Study was designed
A cross sectional study design was used, four age cohorts were designed. In each age group there were 60 participants. PHQ-8 was used for data collection. Participants who scored within the range of 5-9 were considered as individuals with subsyndromal depression and similarly participants who scored 10 or above 10 were considered individuals with depression.
After screening, these participants were used for further analysis. For the analysis purposes, one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were carried out. It was hypothesized that demographical variables such as age, gender, marital status have impact on subsyndromal depression. Results of one-way ANOVA were significant for age on depression (F (3, 236) = 4.04, p < 0.05). Although the border line significant results were calculated for age on subsyndromal depression (F (3, 236) = 2.34 at 0.07). Additionally post-hoc analysis was carried out to investigate the subsyndromal depression and depression among age groups. Results were found to be significant in late adolescence (16-20) (M = -.22, S.E = 0.09, p = 0.02) for subsyndromal depression similarly in late adulthood (60-70) (M = -.23, S.E = 0.07, p = 0.001) for depression.
However present study was explored some unique findings, in common persons selected from twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan, their statistics in subsyndromal depression were 45%, and depression 19% and 36% were those who were not experience depressive symptoms. According to these findings it was an alarming situation to investigate the prevalence of subsyndromal depression for prevention purposes. It is investigated that major depression in late adulthood (60-70) is due to loneliness, spouse death, retirement. Furthermore inability to gain sense of freedom, needs for power and love affairs in late adolescence (16-20) are mediating factors in subsyndromal depression.